Judge or Jury Trial

The defense may have the choice to decide whether a case will be tried to a judge or jury, but in some jurisdictions both the prosecution and the defense have the right to demand a jury trial. Juries consist of 12 persons in serious felony cases, but some states allow for as few as six person juries in less serious misdemeanor cases.

Victim Advocate

If you do not have one already contact your prosecutor’s office to ask if they have a Victim Advocate and if so if you may meet with one. You want to stay in touch with your advocate throughout the process.

Jury Selection

If the trial will be held before a jury, the defense and prosecution select the jury through a question and answer process called “voir dire.” In federal courts and many state courts, the judge carries out this process using questions suggested by the attorneys as well as questions that the judge comes up with on his or her own.

Evidence Issues

The defense and prosecution request the court, in advance of trial, to admit or exclude certain evidence. There may be several hearings on these matters.


This trial is to determine the guilt or innocence of the defendant.

Opening Statements

The prosecution and then the defense make opening statements to the judge or jury. These statements provide an outline of the case that each side expects to prove. This is called an opening statement because this is not the place for legal arguments, only statement of what the attorneys plan to present as evidence. In some cases, the defense attorney reserves opening argument until the beginning of the defense case.

Prosecution Case-In-Chief

The prosecution presents its main case through direct examination of prosecution witnesses by the prosecutor. As the victim the prosecutor will determine what point your testimony will be most meaningful, it may be in the early or later stages of the case in chief depending on other witness testimony. As a witness you will not be allowed to be in the courtroom until after you have testified and then, only if you have been dismissed as a witness. This rarely happens. You, unlike the defendant, are not able to participate in or watch the trial proceed. You will likely only be in the courtroom during your testimony.


The defense may cross-examine the prosecution witnesses.


The prosecution may re-examine its witnesses.

Prosecution Rests

The prosecution finishes presenting its case.

Motions to Dismiss

The defense may move to dismiss the charges if it thinks that the prosecution has failed to produce enough evidence — even if the jury believes it — to support a guilty verdict.

Denial of Motion to Dismiss

Almost always, the judge denies the defense motion to dismiss.

Possible End of Trial

If defendant chooses not to present any evidence, which happens on occasion, the trial will move to jury instructions.

Defense Case-In-Chief

The defense presents its main case through direct examination of defense witnesses.


The prosecutor cross-examines the defense witnesses.


The defense re-examines the defense witnesses.

Defense Rests

The defense finishes presenting its case.

Prosecution Rebuttal

The prosecutor offers evidence to refute the defense case.

Settling on Jury Instructions

The prosecution and defense get together with the judge and craft a final set of instructions that the judge will give the jury.

Prosecution Closing Argument

The prosecution makes its closing argument, summarizing the evidence as the prosecution sees it and explaining why the jury should render a guilty verdict.

Defense Closing Argument

The defense makes its closing argument, summarizing the evidence as the defense sees it and explaining why the jury should render a not guilty verdict — or at least a guilty verdict on a lesser charge.

Prosecution Rebuttal

The prosecution has the last word, if it chooses to do so, and again argues that the jury has credible evidence that supports a finding of guilty.

Jury Instructions

The judge instructs the jury about what law to apply to the case and how to carry out its duties. (Some judges “preinstruct” juries, reciting instructions before closing argument or even at the outset of trial. This may help the jury focus on facts presented during the case in chief)

Jury Deliberations

The jury deliberates and tries to reach a verdict. When defendants are charged with serious felonies, all jurors must agree on a verdict (the jury must be unanimous). Some states allow for non-unanimous verdicts (for example, if 10 out of 12 jurors agree on a verdict) in less serious misdemeanor cases. If less than the requisite number of jurors agrees on a verdict, a jury is “hung” and a case may be retried.

Jury Questions

There are times that the jury will have questions during deliberations that they submit to the judge who may then pull in attorneys for each side. He may have the jury brought back in to the courtroom to ask the questions and the judge will answer the questions in the presence of the defendant.


This phase is to determine the sentencing of the defendant if he has been found guilty. The prosecution will discuss prior criminal record if the defendant is a persistent felony offender, PFO. Evidence will be presented and the jury will have to find that he is a PFO. If he is a PFO, meaning a certain number of prior felony convictions, then the sentence he is give will automatically be upgraded to the next higher sentence. For example, if he is convicted as a PFO then a kidnapping charge with 10-20 years will be bumped up to 20-life. He may now be sentenced to life.

Victim Testimony During Sentencing Phase

This is your moment to look the jury members in the eyes, share your story, walk them through what life has been like for you. Empower them to know that your future in in their hands and that you desperately want your life back. The focus should not be what they are taking away from the defendant by sentencing him, but also what they are doing to your future by that sentence. Speak to them from your heart.

Victim Impact Statement

If you are permitted to write a victim impact statement make sure to do so. Look at our section on how to write a meaningful impact statement. In many states this will be read by the judge prior to sentencing and the parole board prior to any release. This is your time to have the biggest impact on your case and your future. Take advantage of it.

Post-Trial Motions

If the jury produces a guilty verdict, the defense often makes post-trial motions requesting the judge to override the jury and either grant a new trial or acquit the defendant.

Denial of Post-Trial Motions

Almost always, the judge denies the defense post-trial motions.


Assuming a conviction (a verdict of “guilty”), the judge either sentences the defendant on the spot or sets sentencing for another day.


If the Defendant is found guilty there is almost always an appeal.